Intended for the Ersatz Monarch (improved Tegetthoff) battleships, these guns were used as land artillery when those ships were cancelled.
The Austro-Hungarian Navy drew up the first specifications for these battleships on 3rd June 1911. The Marinetechnische Komitee or MTK (Naval Technical Committee) presented two series of designs: A 21,650 ton (22,000 mt) warship with 30.5 cm (12") guns and a 23,000 ton (23,400 mt) ship with 34.5 cm (13.6") guns. In February and March 1912, the Navy made a series of displacement calculations with different armament and belt armor. Beside the 34.5 cm caliber, the Navy studied the possibility of introducing the 35.5 cm (14") caliber and ordered Škoda to work on a design for turrets for this caliber with any-angle loading, similar in concept to contemporary British designs. On the basis of these calculations, on 11th March 1912 the Navy drew up new specifications for the battleships.
On 1 April 1912, Škoda submitted drawings for 34.5 cm (13.6") twin and triple gun turrets to three shipyards and to the MTK, but the 35.5 cm (14") drawings were not finished in time. These 34.5 cm (13.6") turrets were poorly protected and they had a complicated design, due to the any-angle loading system which was more complex than those on British battleships. The shipyards and the MTK presented a total of 25 battleship designs ranging from 23,000 to 26,600 tons (23,400-27,000 mt) and armed with eight to thirteen 34.5 cm (13.6") guns.
On 25th June 1912 a board headed by Vice-Admiral Karl Kailer von Kaltenfels reviewed these designs and found them unsatisfactory. The board decided to instead pursue a new design for a battleship of about 24,100 tons (24,500 mt) armed with ten heavy guns. The board decided that these guns would be yet another new size, 35 cm (13.8"), and that they would have a simpler, fixed loading angle. In July 1912 the Navy asked Škoda to work out the designs for 35 cm (13.8") twin and triple turrets.
The first tests with Rohr Nr. 1 (Barrel No 1) were executed in Pilsen on 20-21 November 1914. During the tests, the gun fired eight 1,400 lbs (635 kg) projectiles at muzzle velocities between 2,687 and 2,700 fps (819 to 823 mps). The test committee recommended reducing the muzzle velocity down to 2,625 fps (800 mps) in order to reduce wear and improve barrel life.
Actual bore size was 349.5 mm (13.76").
|Designation||35 cm/45 (13.79") K14|
|Ship Class Used On||Ersatz Monarch (improved Tegetthoff) class|
|Date Of Design||1912|
|Date In Service||1916 (as artillery)|
|Gun Weight||163,140 lbs. (74,000 kg) including breech|
|Gun Length oa||about 620 in (15.750 m)|
|Grooves||(90) 0.079 in (2.0 mm)|
|Rate Of Fire||about 2 rounds per minute|
Recoiling mass was 166,000 lbs. (75,300 kg).
|Type||Cartridge - Bag|
|Projectile Types and Weights 1||APC: 1,400 lbs. (635 kg)
HE Type 1: 1,400 lbs. (635 kg)
HE Type 2: 1,400 lbs. (635 kg)
Common ("Einheitsgranate"): 1,400 lbs. (635 kg)
|Bursting Charge||APC: 24.0 lbs. (10.9 kg)
HE Type 1: 93.7 lbs. (42.5 kg)
HE Type 2: 83.1 lbs. (37.7 kg)
Common: 40.8 lbs. (18.5 kg)
|Projectile Length||APC: 50.85 in (129.16 cm)
HE Type 1: 59.06 in (150.0 cm)
HE Type 2: 57.84 in (146.93 cm)
|Propellant Charge||452 lbs. (205 kg) RP M/97 2|
|Propellant Container Type and Weight 3||Main cartridge: 57.1 in (145 cm) long x 14.4 - 15.35 in (39.8 - 36.6 cm) diameter, total weight 485 lbs. (220 kg)
Fore cartridge: 110 lbs. (50 kg)
|Muzzle Velocity||2,700 fps (820 mps)|
|Approximate Barrel Life||about 100 rounds 4|
|Ammunition stowage per gun 5||76 normal
- ^Projectiles were all 5.25crh and at least the APC and HE used both armor piercing and ballistic caps.
- ^Forward charge was in a thin brass casing which burned during firing. The forward charge had a 50 gm igniter at both ends. The main charge was in a thicker brass casing and had a 250 gm igniter. This casing weighed 172 lbs. (78 kg) empty.
- ^One gun used as land artillery fired 122 rounds before needing to be relined.
- ^12 practice rounds per gun were to be carried.
|Range||1,400 lbs. (635 kg) AP||1,400 lbs. (635 kg) Common|
|5,550 yards (5,000 m)||23.2 in (590 mm)||21.6 in (550 mm)|
|8,750 yards (8,000 m)||19.9 in (505 mm)||18.5 in (470 mm)|
|10,930 yards (10,000 m)||17.7 in (450 mm)||16.5 in (420 mm)|
|14,220 yards (13,000 m)||15.3 in (388 mm)||14.2 in (360 mm)|
|16,400 yards (15,000 m)||13.6 in (346 mm)||12.7 in (322 mm)|
These values are based upon theoretical calculations performed in July 1913 and do not reflect actual trials. Armor type is unknown.
|Designation||Twin (2) and Triple (2) Mounts|
|Weight||Twin turrets (bow / stern): 603 / 599 tons (613 / 609 mt)
Triple turrets (bow / stern): 836 / 830 tons (849.2 / 843 mt)
|Elevation||-4 / +20 degrees (?)|
|Elevation Rate||3 degrees per second|
|Train||Bow turrets: -140 / +140 degrees
Stern turrets: -135 / +135 degrees
|Train Rate||3 degrees per second|
|Gun recoil||39.4 in (100 cm)|
|Loading Angle||probably +2 degrees|
The four turrets would have been all-electric operated, fed by 6×250 KW turbine-driven dynamos. On the evidence of few drawings and documents, it seems that the ammunition supply would have been similar to the contemporary German turrets.
- Kriegsarchiv, Vienna: MS/PK I-4/12 ex 1912
- Archive of the Hungarian Museum of Science, Technology and Transport, Budapest: Mladiáta-collection
Original research by Mihály Krámli and Erwin F. Sieche
- 29 May 2004
- 18 July 2010
- Updated with information supplied by Mihály Krámli
- 18 July 2010
- Updated with additional information supplied by Mihály Krámli
- 21 August 2011
- Added projectile pictures and information supplied by Mihály Krámli