Used on pre-dreadnoughts of the Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm class. The mixture of both L/35 and L/40 guns on these ships shows how centralized fire control was not yet available for these ships, even though they had a "uniform" main battery.

These guns were built from hoops and used a horizontal wedge breech mechanism.

These mountings used hydraulic power with steam pumps as prime movers. The breech mechanisms were hand-worked as was the ramming.

All German 28 cm guns had an actual bore diameter of 28.3 cm (11.1").

Gun Characteristics

Designation 28 cm/40 (11") MRK L/40
Ship Class Used On Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm class
Date Of Design 1890
Date In Service 1893
Gun Weight 97,000 lbs. (44,000 kg) including BM
Gun Length oa 440.9 in (11.200 m)
Bore Length 409.5 in (10.401 m)
Rifling Length N/A
Grooves N/A
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume 8,723 in3 (142.9 dm3)
Rate Of Fire about 0.5 rounds per minute


Type Bag
Projectile Types and Weights 1 AP L/2,6 2 : 530.7 lbs. (240.7 kg)

HE L/2,9 base fuze: 529 lbs. (240 kg)
Bursting Charge N/A
Projectile Length AP L/2,6: 29.0 in (73.6 cm)

HE L/2,9 base fuze: 32.3 in (82.1 cm)
Propellant Charge 4 World War I: About 161 lbs. (73 kg) RPC 12
Muzzle Velocity 2,690 fps (820 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life N/A
Ammunition stowage per gun Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm: 60 rounds
  • ^
    Actual designations for Projectiles
    AP L/2,6 28 cm Psgr. L/2,6
    HE L/2,9 base fuze 28 cm Spgr. L/2,9 Bdz
  • ^The AP L/2,6 was about 2crh.
  • For a sketch of the AP L/2,6, please see the 28 cm SK L/40 datapage.
  • ^As originally introduced, these guns used brown powder.


Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm 1894

Range with 529 lbs. (240 kg) shell (type not known)
Elevation Distance
25 degrees

(Max elevation of turret)
17,400 yards (15,900 m)

"Die Geschichte der deutschen Schiffsartillerie" says that the effective range of this gun when introduced was 12,030 yards (11,000 m).

World War I

Range with 529 lbs. (240 kg) AP L/2,6
Elevation Distance
30 degrees

(Max elevation of turret)
20,590 yards (18,830 m)

Armor Penetration

Armor Penetration with 529 lbs. (240 kg) AP L/2,6
Range Side Armor Deck Armor
13,120 yards (12,000 m) 6.3 in (160 mm) ---

Data from "Die Geschichte der deutschen Schiffsartillerie."

Mount / Turret Data

Designation Two-gun barbette/turrets
    Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm (2): Drh.L. C/92
Weight N/A
Elevation -5 / +25 degrees
Elevation Rate N/A
Train about +150 / -150 degrees
Train Rate N/A
Gun recoil N/A
Loading Angle N/A 1a
  • ^C/92 mounts were a barbette type and ammunition could only be moved into the gunhouse when the turret was on the centerline. Rounds were delivered by hoist to the rear of the barbette. A crane lifted the rounds into the gunhouse.

Additional Pictures


"Naval Weapons of World War One" by Norman Friedman
"Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906-1922" by Randal Gray and Robert Gardiner (Editor)
"German Warships 1815-1945" by Erich Gröner
"The Big Gun: Battleship Main Armament 1860-1945" by Peter Hodges
"Die Geschichte der deutschen Schiffsartillerie" by Paul Schmalenbach
"Munitionsvorschriften für die Kriegsmarine - Panzersprenggranaten (Psgr)" M.Dv. Nr. 190,1A2 by Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine

Page History

21 November 2012 - New datapage
15 December 2013 - Added photograph of Weissenburg
23 February 2019 - Converted to HTML 5 format, reorganized notes and added data from M.Dv. Nr. 190,1A2
01 April 2021 - Added another photograph of Weissenburg
24 April 2024 - Expanded comment regarding ammunition supply