The C/94 and K94 were Krupp guns built for Austria-Hungary's Panzerschiffs and are thought to be generally similar to German 24 cm guns. The major difference between the two models was the rifling, described below.

Unlike the Krupp 24 cm guns built for the German Navy which had an actual bore diameter of 23.8 cm (9.37"), the bore diameter of all Austro-Hungarian guns was 24.0 cm (9.45").

Gun Characteristics

Designation 24 cm (9.45") L/40 Krupp C/94
24 cm (9.45") L/40 Krupp K94
Ship Class Used On 1 C/94: Monarch
K94: Kaiser Karl IV 2
Date Of Design C/94: 1894
K94: 1894
Date In Service C/94: 1898
K94: 1898
Gun Weight C/94 and K94: 62,391 lbs. (28,300 kg) without breech
Breech Mechanism: 1,451 lbs. (658 kg)
Gun Length oa 378 in (9.600 m)
Bore Length 349 in (8.866 m)
Rifling Length 286 in (7.277 m)
Grooves (72) 0.059 in D x 0.274 in W (1.5 mm D x 6.97 mm W)
Lands 0.138 in (3.5 mm)
Twist C/94: RH - increasing from 0 to 1 in 25
K94: RH - rifling was broken into three parts 1) No twist 2) increasing from 0 to 1 in 25 and 3) Uniform 1 in 25
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire about 3 - 4 rounds per minute
  • ^Data on which ships used which guns is based upon recent research (2020) by Erwin F. Sieche.
  • ^In 1916 the K94 guns on Kaiser Karl IV were replaced by K97 guns.


Type Separate
Projectile Types and Weights 1a 2a AP L/3.5: 474.0 lbs. (215.0 kg)
SAP L/4.4: 474.0 lbs. (215.0 kg)
Bursting Charge 3a AP L/3,5: 5.1 lbs. (2.3 kg) TNT
SAP L/4,4: 47.2 lbs. (21.42 kg) TNT
Projectile Length AP L/3,5: 32.3 in (82.0 cm)
SAP L/4,4: 41.3 in (105.0 cm)
Propellant Charge Full Charge: 91.3 lbs. (41.4 kg) M97a R.P. (21/700 mm) manufactured at the Dyn Nobel Pozsony/Pressburg 4a
Reduced Charge: 63.6 lbs. (28.85 kg) M97a R.P. (21/700 mm) manufactured at the Dyn Nobel Pozsony/Pressburg
Cartridge Case Type, Size and Empty Weight Brass, 240 x 1031.5 mm, 55.2 lbs. (25.015 kg) including screws and lid) 4a
Muzzle Velocity Full Charge: 2,264 fps (690 mps)
Reduced Charge: 1,640 fps (500 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life N/A
Ammunition stowage per gun Monarch: 80 rounds 5a
Others: N/A
  • ^A Note on Sources: There is some disagreement regarding muzzle velocity, shell weight and propellant weight in reference works. The data in the table above comes primarily from the official Austrian-Hungarian Navy documents listed below.
  • ^
    Actual designations for projectiles
    AP 24 cm Panzergranate L/3,5
    SAP 24 cm Zündergranate L/4,4

    These shells did not have AP caps nor ballistic caps.
  • ^Amatol was substituted for TNT during the war.
  • ^4.14.2Unlike German practice, the Austro-Hungarian propellant was in a single large brass casing that used a 150 gm black powder primer.
  • ^Outfit for Monarch class was 40 AP and 40 SAP per gun.
  • The bourrelet diameter was 23.8 cm.


Elevation C/94 and K94
4.78 degrees 6,560 yards (6,000 m)
10.48 degrees 10,940 yards (10,000 m)
24.93 degrees 17,280 yards (15,800 m)

It should be understood that the fire control equipment was unable to use the maximum range of these guns.

Armor Penetration

Penetration of Vertical Wrought Iron Plate with 474 lbs. (215 kg) AP
Range Iron Harvey Krupp Cemented
6,560 yards (6,000 m) 16.9 in (43 cm) --- ---
10,940 yards (10,000 m) --- 7 in (18 cm) 4.7 in (12 cm)
11,000 yards (10,000 m) 11.8 in (30 cm) --- ---
17,280 yards (15,800 m) 10.2 in (26 cm) --- ---

Data from "Austria-Hungary's Monarch Class Coast Defense Ships" and from "Naval Weapons of World War One."

Mount/Turret Data

Designation Single Turret
   Kaiser Karl IV (2): K94 1b

Two-gun Turrets
   Monarch (2): K94 2b 3b

Weight K94 single: 121.0 tons (122.9 mt)
K94 twin: 198.8 tons (202 mt)
Elevation 4b K94 single: -4 / +25 degrees
K94 twin: -4 / +25 degrees
Elevation Rate K94 single: 0.8 degrees per second
K94 twin: 1.9 degrees per second
Train +130 / -130 degrees
Train Rate K94 twin: 5.2 degrees per second
Gun recoil N/A
Loading Angle +4 degrees
  • ^The K94 single turret had electrically powered hoists with a manual backup. See sketch below.
  • ^The Monarch class with their K94 twin turrets were the first Austro-Hungarian battleships to have fully enclosed mountings. These K94 mountings had electrically powered hoists with a manual backup for each gun and the shells were pneumatically rammed. Each turret had a crew of 20 men.
  • ^The pre-dreadnought Budapest was reactivated in 1918 and had her forward turret removed and a 38 cm/L17 Škoda howitzer mounted in its place. Firing trials showed poor accuracy due to the ship's roll after firing. The howitzer was later removed and the ship did not take part in the final actions of the war.
  • ^(The practical max elevation of these mountings was +20 degrees.

Additional Pictures


"Naval Weapons of World War One" by Norman Friedman
"Austro-Hungarian Battleships 1914-18" by Ryan Noppen
"Austria-Hungary's Monarch Class Coast Defense Ships" article by Erwin F. Sieche in Warship International No. 3, 1999
"Die Geschichte der deutschen Schiffsartillerie" by Paul Schmalenbach
"Sankt Georg - Österriech-Ungarns letzter Panzerkkreuzer IM Dienste der k.u.k Außenpolitik in Krieg un Frieden" by Nikolaus A. Sifferlinger
Original research by Mihály Krámli, author of "A Használhatatlan Lövegtornony Mítosza: Legenda Vagy Valóság?" [The Myth of the Useless Turret: Legend or Reality?] and "Az Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia Csatahajói: 1904-1914" [Austro-Hungarian Battleships and Battleship Designs: 1904-1914] {Link - Hungarian to complete book in pdf form and Link - English}.
"Unterricht für das 24 cm Geschútz L/40 K. C/94 [aptiert] S.M.S. Monarch, Wien, Budapest" by Marinesektion, Pola 1900
"Unterricht für das 24 cm Geschützes L/40 K. K/94 - S.M.S. Kaiser Karl VI" by Marinesektion, Pola 1904
Special help from Peter Lienau, Aleš Maryška, Erwin F. Sieche and Mihály Krámli

Page History

20 November 2012 - New datapage
12 October 2013 - Added outfit and turret information
19 March 2019 - Converted to HTML 5 format, reorganized notes
01 August 2020 - Added notes regarding shell and propellant weights, added Note on Sources notes, moved Monarch class and Budapest photographs to German 24 cm SK L/40 datapage
12 October 2023 - Added photograph of gun being installed on Sankt Georg
19 February 2024 - Changed comment regarding bore diameter, added much data and reorganized 24 cm guns datapages